Pioneering the Cosmos: ISRO’s Odyssey and Chandrayaan-3’s Voyage to the Moon’s South Pole

The realm of space exploration has witnessed remarkable advancements over the decades, driven by the unquenchable thirst for knowledge and the pursuit of innovation. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), a beacon of scientific prowess, emerged on the global stage in 1969. Rooted in the vision of leveraging space technology for the nation’s progress, ISRO has continuously pushed boundaries. One of its remarkable ventures, Chandrayaan-3, symbolizes India’s commitment to space exploration, scientific inquiry, and technological excellence, aiming to reach the Moon’s elusive south pole.


Origins of ISRO

The origins of ISRO can be traced back to the visionary leadership of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, an ardent believer in the potential of space technology to uplift the nation. In 1969, ISRO was born, laying the foundation for India’s space odyssey. With an initial focus on communication and remote sensing satellites, ISRO embarked on a journey to achieve self-reliance and technological prowess. The organization’s success in launching satellites at competitive costs and its pioneering Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) demonstrated India’s growing capabilities in space technology.


Chandrayaan-3: Mission Overview

Chandrayaan-3, the third lunar exploration mission by India, is a testament to ISRO’s resolve to explore the cosmos and contribute to scientific knowledge. Building upon the successes of Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2, this mission is meticulously crafted to achieve a soft landing on the Moon’s rugged and uncharted South Pole, a region rich in scientific potential.

Payload and Instrumentation

Chandrayaan-3’s payload includes a suite of instruments designed to unveil the mysteries of the Moon:

  1. Vikram Lander: The Vikram lander is responsible for the soft landing on the Moon. It is box-shaped, with four landing legs and four landing thrusters capable of producing 800 Newtons of thrust each. It carries the rover and various scientific instruments to perform on-site analysis. The lander has four variable-thrust engines with slew rate changing capabilities, unlike Chandrayaan-2’s lander, which had five, with the fifth one being centrally mounted and capable only of fixed thrust. One of the main reasons for Chandrayaan-2’s landing failure was attitude increase during the camera coasting phase. This was removed by allowing the lander to control attitude and thrust during all phases of descent. Attitude correction rate is increased from Chandrayaan-2’s 10°/s to 25°/s with Chandrayaan-3. Additionally, the Chandrayaan-3 lander is equipped with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) to allow measuring attitude in three directions. The impact legs have been made stronger compared to Chandrayaan-2 and instrumentation redundancy has been improved. It will target a more precise 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi) landing region based on images previously provided by the Orbiter High-Resolution Camera (OHRC) on board Chandrayaan-2’s orbiter. ISRO improved the structural rigidity, increased polling in instruments, increased data frequency and transmission, and added additional multiple contingency systems to improve lander survivability in the event of failure during descent and landing.
  2. Pragyan Rover:The Pragyan rover, designed to traverse the lunar terrain, is equipped with advanced scientific instruments. These include a spectrometer to analyze the composition of the surface, a seismometer to study moonquakes, and a thermal probe to measure surface temperature. The rover is a six-wheeled vehicle with a mass of 26 kilograms (57 pounds). It is 917 millimetres (3.009 ft) x 750 millimetres (2.46 ft) x 397 millimetres (1.302 ft) in size. The rover is expected to take multiple measurements to support research into the composition of the lunar surface, the presence of water ice in the lunar soil, the history of lunar impacts, and the evolution of the Moon’s atmosphere.

Mission Objectives and Lunar Landing

Chandrayaan-3 is fueled by a set of ambitious objectives:

  1. Successful Soft Landing:The primary objective is to achieve a soft landing on the Moon’s south pole. This endeavor demands precision and cutting-edge technology, as the unforgiving lunar terrain poses challenges to landing systems.
  1. Scientific Exploration: Chandrayaan-3 aims to unravel the Moon’s geological and compositional mysteries. By studying the lunar surface, analyzing minerals and elements, and understanding the lunar regolith, the mission contributes to humanity’s understanding of planetary evolution.
  1. Technological Validation: Beyond scientific discoveries, the mission serves as a testbed for technology. It validates and enhances ISRO’s landing systems, autonomous operations, and communication networks for future lunar and interplanetary missions.

Landing on the Moon’s South Pole

The process of landing on the Moon’s South Pole is an intricate ballet of technology and precision:

  1. Orbit Insertion and Descent: Chandrayaan-3 must first establish itself in lunar orbit. Following this, the lander initiates its descent. This phase requires meticulously calculated maneuvers to synchronize the spacecraft’s velocity and altitude with that of the Moon.
  2. Landing Sequence: As the lander approaches the lunar surface, it must navigate the treacherous terrain of the South Pole. The descent engines engage, gently slowing down the lander’s velocity for a controlled landing.
  3. Soft Landing: The climax of the mission is the soft landing itself. The lander’s engines fire in coordination, guiding it to a gentle touch down on the lunar surface. This phase demands precise altitude control and a judicious balance between deceleration and gravity.
  4. Rover Deployment: After landing, the lander deploys the rover, enabling it to embark on its scientific exploration of the South Pole.


Significance of Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 carries profound significance in the context of space technology and exploration:

  1. Technological Advancement: The mission epitomizes India’s prowess in space technology. By rectifying the challenges faced by Chandrayaan-2, Chandrayaan-3 showcases ISRO’s resilience and its ability to overcome obstacles through innovation.
  2. Scientific Insights: Chandrayaan-3 promises to unravel the Moon’s mysteries. The data collected will enrich our understanding of lunar geology, mineral distribution, and surface conditions, contributing to broader scientific knowledge.
  3. Inspiration and Education: Chandrayaan-3 serves as an inspiration for future generations of scientists, engineers, and space enthusiasts. It ignites interest in STEM fields and cultivates a culture of innovation and inquiry.
  4. Global Collaboration: The mission’s success augments the potential for international collaboration in space exploration. By sharing data, expertise, and experiences, nations can collectively advance space science for the betterment of humanity.

Future of Space Exploration

Chandrayaan-3’s accomplishments pave the way for the future of space exploration:

  1. Lunar Research Hub: The mission’s success positions India as a significant contributor to lunar exploration. It sets the stage for more comprehensive and sustained research on the Moon’s surface and resources.
  2. Interplanetary Endeavors: The advancements from Chandrayaan-3 propel ISRO toward ambitious interplanetary missions. The experience gained will be instrumental in planning missions to other celestial bodies, further expanding humanity’s horizons.
  3. Space Technology: The mission’s technological innovations extend beyond lunar exploration. Lessons learned in landing systems, navigation, and communication will catalyze advancements in space technology, benefiting future missions.
  4. Global Partnerships: Chandrayaan-3’s achievements underscore the importance of international collaboration in space exploration. Collaborative efforts can accelerate discoveries, promote resource sharing, and foster peaceful cooperation.


The saga of ISRO’s growth from its inception to Chandrayaan-3’s imminent journey to the Moon’s South Pole reflects the essence of human curiosity, scientific exploration, and technological innovation. Chandrayaan-3 exemplifies India’s commitment to push the boundaries of space exploration while inspiring generations. As humanity prepares to embrace the cosmos, Chandrayaan-3’s significance resonates as a harbinger of scientific breakthroughs, technological milestones, and the unity that transcends borders in the pursuit of knowledge. Through endeavors like Chandrayaan-3, we illuminate the path toward a future where the stars cease to be distant and the universe becomes a canvas for humanity’s boundless aspirations.


By Mr D. C Sharma (HOD-ME)